ONLINE RESEARCH CLUB
Nguyen Tien Huy, M.D., Ph.D
Founder of Online Research Club, Head of Lab.
School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University,
1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan
A reminder to keep an eye on older people during heatwaves
Published on The Lancet Healthy Longevity
Authors: Marcel Alied, Nguyen Tien Huy
Burden and mortality of sepsis and septic shock at a high-volume, single-center in Vietnam: a retrospective study
Published on Hospital Practice
Authors: Truong Hong Hieu, Pham Thi Ngoc Thao, Federica Cuce, Nguyen Hai Nam, Abdullah Reda, Osman Gamal Hassan, Le Thanh Hung, Dinh Thi Kim Nguyen, Jeza M Abdul Aziz, Loc Le Quang, Alison Marie Carameros, Nguyen Tien Huy
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and its current known unknowns: A narrative review
Published on Reviews in Medical Virology
Authors: Trang Thi Bich Le, Tamilarasy Vasanthakumaran, Hau Nguyen Thi Hien, I-Chun Hung , Mai Ngoc Luu, Zeeshan Ali Khan, Nguyen Thanh An, Van Phu Tran, Wei Jun Lee, Jeza Muhamad Abdul Aziz, Tasnim Ali, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Nguyen Tien Huy
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has created great global distress. This variant of concern shows multiple sublineages, importantly B.1.1.529.1 (BA.1), BA.1 + R346K (BA.1.1), and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), each with unique properties. However, little is known about this new variant, specifically its sub-variants. A narrative review was conducted to summarise the latest findings on transmissibility, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and efficacy of current vaccines and treatments. Omicron has shown two times higher transmission rates than Delta and above ten times more infectious than other variants over a similar period. With more than 30 mutations in the spike protein's receptor-binding domain, there is reduced detection by conventional RT-PCR and rapid antigen tests. Moreover, the two-dose vaccine effectiveness against Delta and Omicron variants was found to be approximately 21%, suggesting an urgent need for a booster dose to prevent the possibility of breakthrough infections. However, the current vaccines remain highly efficacious against severe disease, hospitalisation, and mortality. Japanese preliminary lab data elucidated that the Omicron sublineage BA.2 shows a higher illness severity than BA.1. To date, the clinical management of Omicron remains unchanged, except for monoclonal antibodies. Thus far, only Bebtelovimab could sufficiently treat all three sub-variants of Omicron. Further studies are warranted to understand the complexity of Omicron and its sub-variants. Such research is necessary to improve the management and prevention of Omicron infection.
Keywords: B.1.1.529; BA.1; BA.2; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2; subvarian
Assessment of physical activity and its facilitators and barriers among Syrian refugees living in Amman City, Jordan: a cross-sectional study
Published on BMC Public Health
Authors: Yasue Yoshino, Miho Sato, Ibraheem Abu-Siam, Nadine Khost, Sumihisa Honda, Ahmad T Qarawi, Osama Gamal Hassan, Nguyen Tien Huy, Yasuhiko Kamiya
Background: Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Few studies about physical activity have been conducted among refugees from neighbouring countries. Given changes in the situation of Syrians, assessment of physical activity among Syrian refugees is required to understand their situation. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of self-reported physical activity and to identify perceived facilitators of and barriers to physical activity among Syrian refugees living in Amman, Jordan, in 2017.
Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were eligible for the study if they were Syrian refugees aged 18-64 years, living in Amman city, and were either registered with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, waiting for their registration, or had a service card issued by the Jordanian Ministry of Interior. The relationship between physical activity level and sex was assessed using the chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage tests. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to assess the relationship between the median metabolic equivalent scores of physical activity and gender. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the association between predictors of physical inactivity and physical activity level.
Results: Among the 173 participants, the majority (91.9%) reported moderate to a high level of physical activity, and 8.1% were physically inactive. The metabolic equivalent scores for the walking activity of males (median: 1039.5, IQR: 0, 2772) was significantly higher than that of females (median: 396, IQR: 0, 1188) (p < 0.01). "Perceived change in the amount of physical activity" was a significant predictor of physical inactivity (adjusted OR = 3.00; 95%CI: 1.27-7.26). Common facilitators of physical activity were "psychological wellbeing"(49.7%) and "prevent diseases"(46.8%). The greatest barriers to physical activity were "time limitation"(43.4%) and "high cost"(57.8%).
Conclusion: This study revealed the physical activity level among Syrian refugees in Amman. The perceived facilitators and barriers to physical activity identified among Syrian refugees were similar to those in previous studies conducted among non-refugees. These results provide a valuable baseline for future examinations of physical activity level and to verify its possible facilitators and barriers.
Keywords: Barriers; Facilitators; Health; IPAQ; Jordan; Non-communicable diseases; Physical activity; Physical inactivity; Syrian Refugees; Urban refugees.
Evaluation of risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission
Published on Current medical research and opinion
Authors: Mai Ngoc Luu 1, Shamael Thabit Mohammed Alhady 2, Minh Duc Nguyen Tran 3, Le Van Truong 4, Ahmad Qarawi 5, U Venkatesh 6, Ranjit Tiwari 7, Ian Christopher Naungayan Rocha 8, Le Huu Nhat Minh 9, Rohanti Ravikulan 10, Shyam Prakash Dumre 11, Hoang Thi Nam Giang 12, Dmytro Pavlenko 13, Fatmaelzahraa Yasser Ali 14, Bao-Tran Do Le 15, Sedighe Karimzadeh 16, Parshal Bhandari 17, Jaffer Shah 18, Jeza Muhamad Abdul Aziz 19 20, Nguyen Tien Huy 21, and the TMGH COVID-19 Collaborators
Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since there is not enough evidence of risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, this study aimed to evaluate them.
Methods: This survey-based study was conducted across 66 countries from May to November 2020 among suspected and confirmed individuals with COVID-19. The stepwise AIC method was utilized to determine the optimal multivariable logistic regression to explore predictive factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Results: Among 2372 respondents who participated in the study, there were 1172 valid responses. The profession of non-healthcare-worker (OR: 1.77, 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.00, p = 0.032), history of SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV infection (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 2.34 - 9.63, p < 0.001), higher frequency of contact with colleagues (OR: 1.17, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.37, p = 0.041), and habit of hugging when greeting (OR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.00 - 1.56, p = 0.049) were associated with an increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Current smokers had a lower likelihood of having COVID-19 compared to former smokers (OR: 5.41, 95%CI: 1.93-17.49, p = 0.002) or non-smokers (OR: 3.69, 95%CI: 1.48-11.11, p = 0.01).
Conclusions: Our study suggests several risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission including the profession of non-healthcare workers, history of other coronavirus infections, frequent close contact with colleagues, the habit of hugging when greeting, and smoking status.
Keywords: COVID-19; Global Survey; Health Surveys; Risk Factors; Transmission
Association of self-reported allergic rhinitis with dengue severity: a case-control study
Published on Acta Tropica
Authors: Nguyen Thi Cam Huong, Nguyen Thi Ngan, Abdullah Reda, Vinh Dong, Dong Thi Hoai Tam, Van The Trung, Dao Huy Manh, Nguyen Hoang Quan, Abdelrahman M Markam, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
A total of 572 dengue patients with positive NS1 (92.7%) or IgM antibodies (7.3%) results were included in this study. Of these patients, 143 patients developed dengue shock syndrome (case group) while the other 429 patients did not (control group). None of the baseline characteristics including age, sex, or being overweight was significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). In multivariable analysis, having a history of dengue infection (OR=3.35, 95% CI: 1.8-6.17, p<0.001) and allergic rhinitis (OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.11-3.4, p=0.019) were found to be associated with dengue shock syndrome. Higher levels of dengue-specific IgE were not associated with worse outcomes in patients with allergies (p=0.204) or allergic rhinitis (p=0.284).
Dengue patients presenting with a history of a previous dengue infection or allergic rhinitis should be considered high-risk patients for the development of dengue shock syndrome.
Factors associated with the very high caesarean section rate in urban areas of Viet Nam
Published on PLOS ONE
Authors: Hoang Thi Nam Giang, Do Thi Thuy Duy, Le Tho Minh Hieu, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Nguyen Thi Tu Ngoc, Mai Thi Phuong, Nguyen Tien Huy
Dengue fever on the rise in Southeast Asia
Published on BMC Pediatrics
Authors: Marcel Alied, Dang Nguyen, Jeza Muhamad Abdul Aziz, Dang Phuc Vinh, Nguyen Tien Huy
The timing setting in kinetic dengue studies: A systematic review
Published on Acta Tropica
Authors: Linh Tran , Nguyen Minh Tuan , Dao Ngoc Hien Tam , Abdulmueti Alshareef , Essam Emad , Ahmed Mohamed Khalifa , Truong Hong Hieu , Zeeshan Ali Khan , Lee Wei Jun , Kenji Hirayama , Nguyen Tien Huy
Prevalence of early skin-to-skin contact and its impact on exclusive breastfeeding during the maternity hospitalization
Published on BMC Pediatrics
Authors: Hoang Thi Nam Giang , Do Thi Thuy Duy, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Nguyen Thi Tu Ngoc, Thu Thi Pham, Le Quang Tuan, Le Oai, Pham Do Thuc Anh, Ton That Khanh, Nguyen Thi Anh Thi, Mai Ngoc Luu, Tran Thi Tuyet Nga, Le Tho Minh Hieu, Nguyen Tien Huy
Trends in Primary Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Incidence-based Mortality in the United States, 1973 to 2015
Published on American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Authors: Soon Khai Low , Dimitrios Giannis , Nguyen D Thuong , Nguyen Hai Nam , Abdulmueti Alshareef , Ioannis Koulas , Georgios Geropoulos , Dimitrios Moris , Ernesto P Molmenti , Nguyen Tien Huy
Negative impact from school closures on children and parents in Vietnam during COVID-19
Published on The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Authors: Ngoc Phuong Hong Tao; Abdelrahman M Makram; Phan Nguyen Quoc Khanh; Nguyen Thanh An; Adnan Safi; Nguyen Tien Huy
The Global Response: How Cities and Provinces Around the Globe Tackled Covid-19 Outbreaks in 2021
Published on The Lancet Regional Health Southeast Asia
Authors: Nityanand Jain, I-Chun Hung, Hitomi Kimura, Goh Yi Lin, William Jau, Khoa Le Anh Huynh, Deepkanwar Singh Panag, Ranjit Tiwari, Sakshi Prasad, Emery Manirambona, Tamilarasy Vasanthakumaran, Tan Weiling Amanda, Ho-Wei Lin, Nikhil Vig, An Nguyen Thanh, Emmanuel Uwiringiyimana, Darya Popkova, Ting-Han Lin, Minh Anh Nguyen, Shivani Jain, Tungki Pratama Umar, Mohamed Hoosen Suleman, Elnur Efendi, Chuan-Ying Kuo, Sikander Pal Singh Bansal, Hui-Hui Peng, Mohit Bains, Marija Rozevska, Thang Huu Tran, Meng-Shan Tsai, Pahulpreet, Suvinai Jiraboonsri, Ruo-Zhu Tai, Zeeshan Ali Khan, Dang Thanh Huy, Supitsara Kositbovornchai, Ching-Wen Chiu, Thi Hien Hau Nguyen, Hsueh-Yen ChenThanawat Khongyot, Kai-Yang Chen, Dinh Thi Kim Quyen, Jennifer Lam, Kadek Agus Surya Dila, Thanh Ngan Cu, Tam Huynh Thi My, Le Anh Dung, Kim Oanh Nguyen Thi, Hoai An Nguyen Thi, My Trieu Duc Thao, Yen Cao Thi, Thien Trang Pham, Koya Ariyoshi, Chris Smith, Nguyen Tien Huy
Impediments to child education, health and development during the COVID-19 pandemic in India
Published on The Lancet Regional Health Southeast Asia
Authors: Akshay Raut; Nguyen Tien Huy
Chest imaging features of Coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Link: DOI: 10.23736/S2784-8477.21.01937-4
Journal: Edizione Minerva Medica
AUTHORS: Soon K. LOW, Mai N. LUU, Le H. MINH, Abdelaziz ABDELAAL, Sze JIA NG, Abdelrahman G. GAD, Le H. NHI, Tran N. LE, Nguyen T. HUY
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to systematically review the evidence reporting the key imaging findings in confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search for articles reporting the prevalence of imaging findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia was conducted in seven databases up to April 10, 2020. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020172528).
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 25 imaging features were identified in 29 studies. The most characteristic radiographic features of COVID-19 pneumonia include peripheral distribution (92.4%, 95% CI: 86.8-95.8), bilateral involvement (82.8%, 95% CI: 76.0-87.9), and ground-glass opacities (GGO) (76.0%, 95% CI: 59.5-87.3). Right lower lobe (RLL) was the most frequently involved lobe (89.0%, 95% CI: 79.6-94.4), followed by left lower lobe (LLL) in 86.5% (95% CI: 74.8-93.2) of patients. The atypical imaging features included bronchial wall thickening, lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion, which were observed more commonly in severe and critical COVID-19 pneumonia compared to mild and moderate condition.
CONCLUSIONS: Chest imaging can help to diagnose COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in regions where the availability of RT-PCR testing kits is limited. Recognition of key radiographic features of COVID-19 pneumonia is essential to identify patients at early stages, monitor disease progression, and optimize their management plan.
The efficacy and adverse effects of favipiravir on COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical trials and observational studies
AUTHORS: Dang The Hung; Suhaib Ghula; Jeza Muhamad Abdul Aziz; Abdelrahman M.Makram; Gehad Mohamed Tawfik; Ali Ahmed-Fouad Abozaid; Rohan Andrew Pancharatnam; Amr Mohamed Ibrahim; Muhammad Besher Shabouk; Morgan Turnage; Saloni Nakhare; Zahra Karmally; Basel Kouz; Tran Nhat Le; Suleiman Alhijazeen; Nguyen Quoc Phuong; Alaa Mohamed Ads; Ali Hussein Abdelaal; Nguyen Hai Nam; Tatsuo Iiyama; Kyoshi Kita; Kenji Hirayama; Nguyen Tien Huy.
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of favipiravir in COVID-19 patients.
Methods: Our protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020206305). Fourteen databases were searched until February 8th, 2021. An update search for new RCTs was done on March 2nd, 2022. Meta-analysis was done for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs.
Results: Overall, 157 studies (24 RCTs, one non-RCT, 21 observational studies, two case series, and 106 case reports) were included. On hospitalized patients, in comparison to standard of care, favipiravir showed a higher rate of viral clearance at day 5 (RR=1.60, p=0.02), defervescence at day 3-4 (RR=1.99, p<0.01), chest radiological improvement (RR=1.33, p<0.01), hospital discharge at day 10-11 (RR=1.19, p<0.01), and shorter clinical improvement time (MD=-1.18, p=0.05). Regarding adverse events, favipiravir groups had higher rates of hyperuricemia (RR=9.42, p<0.01), increased alanine aminotransferase (RR=1.35, p<0.01), but lower rates of nausea (RR=0.42, p<0.01) and vomiting (RR=0.19, p=0.02). There were no differences regarding mortality (RR=1.19, p=0.32), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (RR=1•11, p=0•25). On non-hospitalized patients, no significant differences were reported.
Conclusion: Adding favipiravir to the standard of care provides better outcomes for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Pregnant, lactating women, and patients with a history of hyperuricemia should avoid using favipiravir.
Keywords: Favipiravir; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; efficacy; side effects
Clinical and laboratory factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis
How to cite: Minh LHN, Abozaid AAA, Ha NX, Le LQ, Gadmil A, Tiwari R, Le TN, Dinh QK, AL-Manaseer B, Kien ND, Vuong NL, Zayan AH, Nhi LHH, Dila KAS, Varney J, Huy NT. Clinical aspect of novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2021;e2288. doi:10.1002/rmv.2288.
Lessons Learned from the Reemergent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Cases in Areas of Long-reported No Community Transmission
Frequent inappropriate use of unweighted summary statistics in systematic reviews of pathogen genotypes or genogroups
Mar 2020 | J Clin Epidemiol
Objectives: Our study aimed to systematically assess and report the methodological quality used in epidemiological systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analysis (MA) of pathogen genotypes/genogroups.
Study design and setting: Nine electronic databases and manual search of reference lists were used to identify relevant studies. The method types were divided into three groups: 1) with weighted pooling analysis (which we call MA), (2) unweighted analysis of the study-level measures (which we call summary statistics), and (3) without any data pooling (which we call SR only). Characteristics were evaluated using Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA), and Risk Of Bias In Systematic reviews (ROBIS) tools. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO with CRD42017078146.
Results: Among 36 included articles, 5 (14%) studies conducted SR only, 16 (44%) performed MA, and 15 (42%) used summary statistics. The univariable and multivariable linear regression of AMSTAR and PRISMA scores showed that MA had higher quality compared with those with summary statistics. The SR only and summary statistics groups had approximately equal scores among three scales of AMSTAR, PRISMA, and ROBIS. The methodological quality of epidemiological studies has improved from 1999 to 2017.
Conclusion: Despite the frequent use of unweighted summary statistics, MA remains the most suitable method for reaching rational conclusions in epidemiological studies of pathogen genotypes/genogroups.
Keywords: Genogroups; Genotypes; Meta-analysis; Methodological quality; Summary statistics; Systematic review.
Introduction of Novel Surgical Techniques: A Survey on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Surgeons
Oct 2019 | Surg Innov
Purpose: To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of surgeons toward introducing novel surgical techniques in Egypt, Palestine, and Vietnam.
Summary Background Data: Despite the recent advances in modern surgical care and its role in advancing the quality and the length of lives, surgery in the developing world has stagnated or even regressed.
Methods: A survey was undertaken among the surgeons in 9 hospitals belonging to the 3 countries. Questions were categorized into knowledge, attitude, and practice questions. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the event rate and compare between knowledge and practice, senior and junior surgeons.
Results: A total of 244 responses, with a response rate of 79.7%, were included in the analysis. Regarding knowledge and attitude, the results were satisfactory except that only 55.8% of surgeons appraised their level of education and 43.3% wanted to earn money from the novel procedure. There was a significant difference between knowledge and practice regarding getting informed consent from the patients (P = .024), discussing the novelty of the procedure (P < .001), discussing the alternative procedures (P < .001), discussing the surgeons' experience and level of skills (P < .001), discussing the risk of the new procedure (P < .001), and monitoring the outcomes after the new procedure (P < .001).
Conclusions: Most surgeons have sufficient knowledge and are motivated regarding adopting novel surgical techniques in order to provide the best care for the patients. However, there was a gap between knowledge and practice. Training programs and evidence-based guidelines regarding the introduction of novel surgical techniques are needed to overcome these challenges.
Keywords: business of surgery; evidence-based medicine; evidence-based surgery; surgical education.
Participants' understanding of informed consent in clinical trials over three decades: systematic review and meta-analysis
Mar 2015 | Bull World Health Organ.
Objective: To estimate the proportion of participants in clinical trials who understand different components of informed consent.
Methods: Relevant studies were identified by a systematic review of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar and by manually reviewing reference lists for publications up to October 2013. A meta-analysis of study results was performed using a random-effects model to take account of heterogeneity.
Findings: The analysis included 103 studies evaluating 135 cohorts of participants. The pooled proportion of participants who understood components of informed consent was 75.8% for freedom to withdraw at any time, 74.7% for the nature of study, 74.7% for the voluntary nature of participation, 74.0% for potential benefits, 69.6% for the study's purpose, 67.0% for potential risks and side-effects, 66.2% for confidentiality, 64.1% for the availability of alternative treatment if withdrawn, 62.9% for knowing that treatments were being compared, 53.3% for placebo and 52.1% for randomization. Most participants, 62.4%, had no therapeutic misconceptions and 54.9% could name at least one risk. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses identified covariates, such as age, educational level, critical illness, the study phase and location, that significantly affected understanding and indicated that the proportion of participants who understood informed consent had not increased over 30 years.
Conclusion: The proportion of participants in clinical trials who understood different components of informed consent varied from 52.1% to 75.8%. Investigators could do more to help participants achieve a complete understanding.